There are four types of phosphate deposits in my country, mainly marine sedimentary phosphate rock, metamorphic apatite, magmatic apatite and ouray phosphate. Phosphate rock resources are mainly distributed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Lianghu areas, accounting for 77.99% of the total domestic reserves. Compared with other countries, my country is rich in phosphate resources, and there are about 500 phosphate producing areas in the country.
Worldwide, flotation, roasting-digesting and washing-desliming are dominant in phosphate beneficiation. With the development of science and technology, new beneficiation processes such as chemical beneficiation, dense medium beneficiation, photoelectric beneficiation, biological leaching and combined beneficiation have been proposed.
So far, flotation is the technology with the best separation effect and the most widely used technology in the beneficiation process of phosphate rock all over the world. For a long time, flotation has been in the leading position in the beneficiation process of phosphate rock. According to the different flotation sequence, flotation can be divided into positive flotation, reverse flotation, forward and reverse flotation, reverse flotation, reverse flotation, stage grinding, stage separation and double reverse flotation.
Positive flotation is a method of separating silicate minerals and gangue minerals from phosphate and flotation froth minerals. For low magnesium siliceous phosphate rock. Wang Cunwen et al. used positive flotation method to study the enrichment method of phosphate and potash ore in Yichang. The results show that the positive flotation index of phosphate concentrate is 15.17%, and the recovery rate is 20%. The univariate test result was 74.47%. Yang Shulan studied the process mineralogy of the flotation tailings of a phosphate mine in Yunnan, determined the re-mining and re-concentration process, and obtained a good grade index of 26.96%, a recovery rate of 65.79%, and a tailings grade of 4.72%.
Reverse flotation is to use inhibitors to inhibit phosphorus minerals, use collectors to collect carbonate and other minerals, and use air bubbles to carry them out, so that the target minerals remain at the bottom of the pool, thereby realizing the separation of minerals and phosphorus. Reverse flotation is suitable for calcium phosphate rocks with low content of siliceous minerals and high content of carbonate minerals such as dolomite. Li Guangtao et al. took Yunnan Aluminum as the research object for the flotation experiment of Yunnan phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid are used as regulators and inhibitors, yp-01 is used as collector, and pine oil is used as foaming agent. Gangue minerals are removed by reverse flotation. The results showed that the grade of phosphate concentrate was 30.72%, and the recovery rate was 86.02%. The recycling of refractory dolomite is worth utilizing.
First, the siliceous minerals are inhibited by positive flotation and reverse flotation, and then phosphorus minerals and carbonate minerals with similar flotation are flotated, and then reverse flotation is performed in an acidic medium to screen carbonate minerals. Conversely, reverse flotation can separate coal gangue from target minerals. Zhang Ming et al. used the self-developed new normal temperature positive flotation agent hx-1 and reverse flotation agent FM-1 to conduct forward and reverse flotation tests on Fangmashan low-grade collophosphate ore, and obtained a concentrate grade of 28.32%, Good flotation index with gangue content of 1.12% and yield of 36.96%. Moreover, the technological process is simple, which greatly reduces the beneficiation cost of the Fangmashan low-grade collophosphate beneficiation process.
Two kinds of reverse flotation are using phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid and its derivatives to inhibit phosphate minerals in acidic media, flotation of gangue minerals with fatty acid collectors, then adjusting the pulp, and then using cationic collectors to float under alkaline conditions. Choose silica.
These two processes utilize the difference in the degree of dissociation between minerals to achieve the separation of useful minerals and gangue minerals. Compared with other minerals, carbonates are low in hardness and brittle. At coarse grinding fineness, carbonate minerals dissociate preferentially. Next, a flotation operation is performed to produce siliceous minerals.
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