Flotation is a kind of beneficiation method with complex mineral composition. During the flotation process, the flotation equipment is inflated and stirred through the prepared pulp, so that the mineral particles are selectively attached to the bubbles and floated, so as to realize useful minerals. Separation from gangue minerals. Two commonly used flotation equipment are described below.
01 Flotation machine
The flotation machine is a flotation equipment with a mechanical stirring device. It relies on the stirring of the impeller to transport the pulp and disperse the air. The bubbles and the ore particles collide and adhere in the collecting area, and the upward conveying force of the mineralized particles is generated by the impeller. down to the foam area and discharged from the overflow .
According to the different methods of aeration and stirring, it can be divided into mechanical stirring flotation machine and aerated mechanical stirring flotation machine.
The mechanical stirring flotation machine relies on the mechanical stirring device to realize the aeration and stirring of the pulp. The advantages of this type of flotation machine are: it can self-prime air and pulp, no need to add an inflatable device, and it is easy to achieve self-flow when the medium ore returns; its disadvantages are: at best, it is small, energy consumption is high, and wear is large.
The aerated mechanical stirring flotation machine stirs the pulp through a mechanical stirring device, and a blower is provided to provide aeration. The advantages of this type of flotation machine are: the air volume is large, the air volume can be adjusted according to the needs, and the wear is small; the disadvantage is: no suction and slurry absorption capacity, and a separate blower and slurry return pump are required.
Due to the working principle and working method of the flotation machine itself, the flotation column has the following characteristics in industrial applications:
It has a wide range of applications and strong adaptability, and almost all mineral selections have successful application examples;
It has its own slurry stirring device, which can strengthen the dispersion of the medicine;
The ability to collect conjoined ore particles is strong, which is beneficial to improve the recovery rate of minerals;
Large area and high energy consumption of equipment;
02 Flotation column
The flotation column belongs to the inflatable flotation equipment without mechanical stirring, and the structure is relatively simple. The bubble generator is a key component of the flotation column, which directly affects the dispersion of the bubbles at best and the working efficiency of the flotation column. The froth area of the flotation column is added with froth flushing water, which can reduce the entrainment of non-purpose minerals in the froth and improve the concentrate grade. There are many kinds of flotation columns used in mineral separation in China, which can be divided into two categories according to the different bubble generation methods: inflatable flotation columns and gas-liquid mixed flow flotation columns.
A bubble generator is installed at the bottom of the inflatable flotation column, and the compressed air provided by the external air source is diffused and aerated into the column through the microbubble generator. The ore pulp is fed from the upper part of the flotation column, the minerals flow downstream, and the bubbles flow upstream, and the two collide countercurrently inside the flotation column.
The gas-liquid mixed flow flotation column can create a high-speed turbulent mixing environment inside the bubble generator. The turbulent collision between the pulp and the air occurs in the bubble generator, and then the gas-liquid mixture is injected into the flotation column, and the bubbles and the air collide with each other. Mineral particles collide countercurrently.
Compared with the flotation machine, the flotation column has the following characteristics:
Simple structure, convenient operation and maintenance;
It can reduce the number of flotation operations and simplify the beneficiation process;
There is no stirring device, and the energy consumption of the equipment is low;
Small footprint and low infrastructure costs.
The above are the commonly used flotation equipment in concentrators. As for which one to choose, it should be selected according to the specifications of the concentrator, and the raw ore properties of the minerals include ore density, particle size, mud content, grade, and floatability. . Taking into account the operating conditions of each flotation machine, scientifically and rationally select the appropriate flotation machine to improve the production efficiency of the plant.
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